As with many superfoods, the evidence largely comes from research in humans, however, canine cognitive decline does share characteristics with human Alzheimer’s disease [1-3]. Lemon balm, in particular, has been shown to improve cognitive function and agitation associated with Alzheimer’s disease and cognitive decline in humans [4,5]. Studies have even shown lemon balm to improve cognitive performance and mood in healthy, young people . Calm-K9 Senior Boost also contains a blend of anti-oxidants and B-vitamins which have shown cognition-improving effects [7,8] and phosphatidyl choline works to treat neurological conditions by supporting the cell structure and the production of chemical neurotransmitters . Calm-K9 Senior Boost also contains L-tryptophan and probiotics – see Calm-K9 for details.>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>(References:Head, E; McCleary, R; Hahn, FF; Milgram, NW; Cotman, CW. Region-specific age at onset of beta-amyloid in dogs. Neurobiol Aging. 2000. 21:89–96. Landsberg, GM; Nichol, J; Araujo, JA. Cognitive dysfunction syndrome: A disease of canine and feline brain aging. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2012. 42:749–768.  Osella, MC; Re, G; Odore, R; Girardi, C; Badino, P; Barbero, R; Bergamasco, L. Canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome: Prevalence, clinical signs and treatment with a neuroprotective nutraceutical. Appl Anim Behav Sci. 2007. 105:297–310. Fast, R; Schutt, T; Toft, N; Moller, A; Berendt, M. An Observational Study with Long-Term Follow-Up of Canine Cognitive Dysfunction: Clinical Characteristics, Survival, and Risk Factors. J Vet Intern Med. 2013. 27:822-829.  Akhondzadeh S, Noroozian M, Mohammadi M, Ohadinia S, Jamshidi AH, Khani M. Melissa officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: a double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry. 2003 Jul 1;74(7):863-6.  Scholey A, Gibbs A, Neale C, Perry N, Ossoukhova A, Bilog V, Kras M, Scholz C, Sass M, Buchwald-Werner S. Anti-stress effects of lemon balm-containing foods. Nutrients. 2014 Nov;6(11):4805-21.  Pan Y, Kennedy AD, Jönsson TJ, Milgram NW. Cognitive enhancement in old dogs from dietary supplementation with a nutrient blend containing arginine, antioxidants, B vitamins and fish oil. Br J Nutr. 2018 Feb;119(3):349-58.  Pan Y, Landsberg G, Mougeot I, Kelly S, Xu H, Bhatnagar S, Gardner CL, Milgram NW. Efficacy of a therapeutic diet on dogs with signs of cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS): a prospective double blinded placebo controlled clinical study. Front.Nutr. 2018 Dec 12;5:127.  Lu Liu, Song Qiao, Liying Zhuang, Shanhu Xu, Linhui Chen, Qilun Lai, Wenfeng Wang, "Choline Intake Correlates with Cognitive Performance among Elder Adults in the United States", Behav. Neurol. vol. 2021, Article ID 2962245, 11 pages, 2021.